Tuesday 28 September 2021

EcoSask News, September 28, 2021

autumn sunrise

Upcoming Events 
Last of the Right Whales premieres at the Calgary International Film Fest Sept. 26. It will be available online from Sept 27-Oct 3 in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. 

The Wildlife Rescue Society of Saskatchewan is holding an online information session for rescue and transport volunteers at 2 pm, Oct. 2. 

Library of Things, Saskatoon, will be open for pick-ups by reservation from 1-4 pm, Oct. 2. 

City of Saskatoon residents can dispose of household hazardous waste from 9 am to 3:30 pm, Oct. 3. 

Saskatoon’s Energy Management Task Force is offering an online update on DEEP from 7:30-9:15 am, Oct. 6. 

The Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy is hosting a video conference on measuring greenhouse gas sources and sinks in the Canadian Prairies crop sector from 12-12:55 pm, Oct. 7. Register to participate. 

Looking Ahead 
The Saskatchewan Waste Reduction Council is hosting repair cafés in Regina, Saskatoon, and online from 10 am-2 pm, Oct. 23. You’re encouraged to book an appointment for both live and virtual events. 

Full details on all upcoming events can be found on the EcoFriendly Sask Calendar
fall colors

Local News 
Great news - and well deserved! Wild About Saskatoon: NatureCity Experience is a finalist for a national Community Action Award from the National Museum of Nature. 

This article counters the current arguments in favour of grass-raised beef from a cost, scale, and environmental impact perspective. The article states, “Regenerative ranching begins with the assumption that cattle must be commercially ranched and then backfills an ecological narrative to sustain that assumption.” [The New Republic

A joint City/University research study has found a wide range of pharmaceuticals and chemicals in Saskatoon’s wastewater. “The levels we have measured are not high enough to be likely to acutely impact aquatic organisms living in the river. But that does not mean that there are no chronic, long-term implications that might manifest over longer time scales.” [CTV News

Urban Coyote, a poem by Glen Sorestad. [This Singing Land kanikamot askiy

Healthy People, Healthy Environment 
A new report states that climate change is a threat to public health as well as the environment and the economy. It will affect everyone but not equally, depending on factors such as age, access to health care, and economic disadvantages. [Canadian Institute for Climate Choices

The 3-30-300 rule is designed to create equitable access to urban forests, addressing air pollution and urban heat islands. A few communities, such as Saanich in BC, have adopted the rule which calls for every resident to be able to see at least 3 decent-sized trees from their home, live in neighbourhoods with at least 30% tree canopy cover, and live no more than 300 meters from the nearest public green space. [Nature Canada]

fall colors

Pollution Prevention 
The Sierra Club has endorsed a strong statement opposing “unnecessary and harmful artificial lighting during the day and night.” They provide a comprehensive explanation for their rationale as well as a list of the over 70 references and resources that were consulted in developing the policy. [Sierra Club]

“The production of steel, cement, and ammonia together emit about one-fifth of all human-caused CO2. Technologies are emerging that promise to decarbonize these problem industries, but analysts warn that big challenges remain before the processes can be cleaned up.” [Yale Environment 360

Planned obsolescence may be good for phone companies but it’s bad for users’ wallets and even worse for the planet, because it encourages people to treat their phones as disposable. No one really knows how much e-waste (electronic refuse) is generated every year, but one recent estimate put it at 53.6m metric tonnes in 2019. [The Guardian

Book Reviews 
Gernot Wagner, author of Geoengineering: The Gamble, says it’s right to be skeptical about solar geoengineering (reflecting solar radiation back into space), but it can’t be ignored as somebody is likely to try it eventually. [Earthbound Report

“In Hurricane Lizards and Plastic Squid: The Fraught and Fascinating Biology of Climate Change, [Thor] Hanson talks to scientists all over the world about how plants and animals are moving and changing, and why some are inherently better set up for success than others.” [The Revelator

Did you know? Highbush Cranberry belongs to the honeysuckle family and isn’t actually a cranberry. 

EcoFriendly Sask supports Saskatchewan environmental initiatives through an online publication, an events calendar, small grants, and the Nature Companion website/app. You can follow EcoFriendly Sask by liking us on Facebook, following us on Twitter, or subscribing by email (top right corner).

Thursday 23 September 2021

Living Prairie Museum: A Glimpse into our History

Most history museums are full of inert objects from a past that no longer exists – horse-drawn carts, penny farthing bicycles, or vintage cameras. But that’s not the case at the City of Winnipeg’s Living Prairie Museum, a 12-hectare remnant of tall grass prairie. “The site is a glimpse into our history, what Winnipeg would have looked like 100-200 years ago,” explains Sarah Semmler, the museum’s curator. “People often don’t understand the importance of tall grass prairie. We’re able to explain that it’s rarer than rain forests, covering less than 1% of North America.” 

Prior to European settlement, tall grass prairie stretched from southern Manitoba to Texas, covering one million square kilometres. Thousands of plants, animals, and insects found a home here as did many of Canada’s Indigenous peoples. The Living Prairie Museum gives visitors the opportunity to experience tall grass prairie, to touch the grass, smell the flowers, and hear the birds. It also serves as a refuge for native plants and urban wildlife and provides Winnipeg residents with educational opportunities and a chance to connect with nature. “A space like this helps demonstrate the connectivity of species and ecology,” Sarah says. “Without it, it would be harder to draw people’s attention to grassland conservation.” 

The museum opened in 1976 and is located in Winnipeg’s St. James neighbourhood. It’s surrounded on 3 sides by housing estates, while the fourth side is industrial. The Living Prairie Museum falls under the jurisdiction of the City of Winnipeg’s Naturalist Services. “Winnipeg is unique in having quite a few pieces of intact land – forest, wetland, and prairie – within its boundaries,” explains Sarah. The remnant prairie isn’t totally enclosed so wildlife come and go using wildlife corridors and an adjacent aspen/oak forest to access other parts of the city. 

The Living Prairie Museum has been fortunate not to have experienced any wildlife conflict. Staff regularly remind visitors not to feed any of the wildlife as the prairie is a complete habitat providing all the food the animals need. Work is ongoing to keep invasive species such as Canada thistle, smooth brome, and tufted vetch out of the prairie. “We try to maintain a border,” Sarah says. “The main tool is hand-pulling by summer students. We also rent a herd of sheep from a local farmer for 2-3 weeks a year. We tried goats this year, but they’re just a little too mischievous for our temporary fencing.” 

People living in the St. James neighbourhood are very familiar with the museum and ask lots of questions so staff try to be proactive and advertise activities such as grazing and prescribed burns. They promote the museum to a wider Manitoba audience by publishing fun facts and macro photos on social media. 

The museum has 2 full-time year-round staff and up to 10 employees during the summer months. It’s a busy place with activities ranging from habitat management to school and family educational programs and self-directed visits. The interpretive centre was closed for an extended period due to Covid 19 with the museum unable to provide its standard environmental programming. In a normal year, however, thousands of school children participate in programs ranging from colours and sounds of the prairie to soil, weather conditions, and the scoop on poop. Winter programs include animal tracks and snowshoe rental on Sundays. 

There is family programming once a week during the summer months and speakers on the research taking place in Manitoba’s natural habitats during the winter. Individual visitors can explore a trail with a pamphlet pointing out interesting features (buffalo wallow, sites of former homesteads, snowberries enjoyed by deer in winter, etc.) and nature backpacks with fun things for kids to do on the hike. 

The Museum’s annual Monarch Butterfly Day has proven to be extremely successful. “We try to find things that get people excited to draw them in,” Sarah says. “People already know a fair bit about monarch butterflies, so we use that to bring people out. Then we can make the link between monarchs and our prairie habitat and how one supports the other.” Up to 1500 people attend the event which has been in place for the past 13 years. There is a trade show, displays by local conservation organizations, a speakers’ tent, guided hikes, face painting and crafts, prizes, and a butterfly release at the end of the day. Up to 500 free milkweed plants are given away each year. 

Seed plots south of the city are used to grow native plants, which are used to improve genetic diversity at the museum and enrich other sites around the city. Volunteers help to harvest seeds from remnant prairie sites but are strictly supervised as there are firm guidelines on harvesting seeds on city sites. 

Last fall, the museum planted an Indigenous garden next to the museum’s nature playground as part of its response to the Commission on Truth and Reconciliation. They’ve planted native plugs of sweetgrass and sage but avoided cedar and tobacco in case they encroached onto the remnant prairie. The public has been invited to start harvesting this fall under the guidance of Elders and Knowledge Keepers. 

Further Information 
Northeast Swale (a ribbon of remnant prairie in and close to Saskatoon)

Photo Credits
Wild Bergamot and Purple Prairie Clover, Sarah Semmler
Sheep Grazing, Paul Mutch
Guided Hikes at Monarch Butterfly Day, Christa Burstahler
Volunteer Seed Harvesting, Celeste Odono

EcoFriendly Sask supports Saskatchewan environmental initiatives through an online publication, an events calendar, small grants, and the Nature Companion website/app. You can follow EcoFriendly Sask by liking us on Facebook, following us on Twitter, or subscribing by email (top right corner).

Tuesday 21 September 2021

EcoSask News, September 21, 2021

backlit grass

Upcoming Events 
There will be a School Strike for Climate from 11 am-1 pm, Sept. 24, in Regina. A similar event in Saskatoon has been postponed.

City of Regina residents can dispose of household hazardous waste from 9 am-4 pm, Saturday, Sept. 25. 

There will be an electric vehicle expo in Regina from 9 am-6 pm, Sept. 25 and in Saskatoon from 10 am-5 pm, Sept. 26. 

Looking Ahead 
SaskOutdoors is offering the following virtual workshops:
Growing Up Wild from 7-9 pm, Oct. 14
Flying Wild on Oct. 18 and 25 from 7-8:30 pm 
Getting Little Feet Wet from 7-9 pm, Oct. 28
Project Wet from Nov. 1-8. 

Full details for all events are found on the EcoFriendly Sask Calendar

SES Wants to Depave Saskatoon 
Saskatoon storm water flows into the South Saskatchewan River without being treated; most of this runs right off roads and sidewalks, picking up road salt, pet waste, litter, and other pollutants along the way. In an effort to help slow down, soak up, and clean storm water while also creating habitats and benefitting our community, the Saskatchewan Environmental Society will be holding a “Depave” event in Saskatoon in May 2022. Depave, a project of Green Communities Canada, aims to improve rain flow in urban centres by “depaving” (removing the asphalt) in a small area (~100 m2) and cultivating the site by planting native plants and trees. If you have an area in your school, or church yard, or at your business where SES can hold a Depave event and build a beautiful greenspace, email them at depave@environmentalsociety.ca or call the SES office at 306.665.1915.
backlit grass

Personal Choices 
Is your toilet paper sustainable? Several major brands are still relying on virgin forests for their products’ fibres. [NRDC

Community Initiatives 
ECOWATER, a SK startup company providing eco-friendly approaches for the removal of contaminants of emerging concern from water and wastewater, won third prize and $10,000 in seed funding in Water Canada’s Aqua Hacking Challenge, Western Canada. [AquaHacking 2021 Challenge

Gabriola Island Recycling Organization receives over 45,000 kg of donated clothing every year. Half of that goes into their thrift store. They plan to sell upcycled products to avoid sending the other half to the landfill. [CBC British Columbia

Policy Decisions 
Getting people to drive less is difficult because North American cities are designed for cars, but there are solutions. 1) Make streets safer for pedestrians and cyclists, 2) End single-family zoning to encourage mixed-use development, and 3) Make drivers pay the cost of driving. [Vox

“Connecting provincial grids is essential to make the best use of the clean electricity resources available in each province, allowing renewable energy to be developed in areas with the best conditions and distributed elsewhere.” [ report prepared by Pembina Institute

Public Awareness 
Species awareness days (e.g. Bat Appreciation Day, World Rhino Day) boost fundraising and media coverage, especially for lesser-known species. It pays to include specific calls to action (e.g. go to this webpage or share this information). [The Revelator

Using quilting to tell a story is “bringing in new audiences to engage and talk about science”. [Smithsonian Magazine]

Nature Companion, a free nature app for Canada's four western provinces

EcoFriendly Sask
supports Saskatchewan environmental initiatives through an online publication, an events calendar, small grants, and the Nature Companion website/app. You can follow EcoFriendly Sask by liking us on Facebook, following us on Twitter, or subscribing by email (top right corner).

Thursday 16 September 2021

Our Magpie Neighbours



With a loud voice, a long tail, and distinctive black and white markings, black-billed magpies are easy to spot. They are large birds (1.5-2 ft) living year-round in northwestern Canada and the United States. You won't find them along the west coast, but you will find them in the interior of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California. 

Western Canada’s black-billed magpies are one of 17 different species of magpies around the world. They are almost identical to Eurasian magpies. However, magpies found in South and East Asia have vivid blue and green feathers. 
“In ancient Rome, the magpie was associated with magic and fortune telling, while in Scandinavia some witches rode magpies or turned into them. In Germany, the bird was considered a bird of the underworld and in Scotland it was said that magpies had a drop of the devil’s blood on their tongues. 

"Outside of Europe, the magpie has a much more positive image. In Native American legends, the magpie was considered a friend of hunter-gatherer tribes. In Korea, the magpie is thought to bring good news and in China it is a symbol of happiness, foretelling and good fortune.” [Horniman Museum & Gardens
Magpies are omnivorous, eating everything from insects, grains, and berries to small rodents, other birds’ eggs, and even young chicks (although eggs and chicks make up only a very small portion of their diet). They’ve adapted well to urban living, helping themselves to leftover food scraps. In rural areas, they pick the ticks from the backs of large mammals such as moose and deer. The ticks they don’t eat immediately are tucked away for future meals. “Most of the ticks, however, are cached alive and unharmed, and may live to reproduce later.” 

Magpies belong to the corvid family along with crows, ravens, and jays and are some of the most intelligent birds in the world. Magpies “can use tools, play games, work in teams, and even mimic human speech.” 
“One of the most notable Black-billed Magpie behaviors is the so-called ‘funeral’—when one magpie discovers a dead magpie, it begins calling loudly to attract other magpies. The gathering of raucously calling magpies (up to 40 birds have been observed) may last for 10 to 15 minutes before the birds disperse and fly off silently.” [All About Birds
Unlike other crows, magpies have a very long tail. In fact, it’s the same length as their body. Scientists aren’t sure why they have such a long tail, “but it may provide magpies with the ability to make swift turns while in the air. This would allow the birds to evade larger predators and make up for rather average flying abilities.” 

Magpies spend up to 40 days constructing large, solid domed nests roughly 30 inches high and 20 inches wide. They are so well constructed they can last for many years. “The male gathers sticks for the exterior. The female tends to the interior, forming a mud cup and lining it with grass.” 
Photographer Ron Dudley has been photographing one nest for over 7 years and shares some of his photographs. [Feathered Photography
Magpies are vocal, social birds. You’ll often find them sitting in groups calling loudly. A group of magpies is known as a parliament, possibly because they often gather in large groups to converse among themselves. They will also band together to chase away a raptor. In the spring, you may hear large groups of birds cawing loudly as younger birds try to chase away and take over the territory of more established pairs. 
“Magpies are very curious, just like their relatives, the jays and crows. They may sometimes pick up shiny things, but they don’t show any preference for shiny over dull. A magpie’s more likely to grab your sandwich than your silver.” [Audubon
Magpies often perch on poles or the tops of trees to provide a visual display of their territory. The males establish dominance over other males by stretching their neck and flashing their white eyelids. Magpies mate for life. The females initiate the mating display by begging for food from the male. They lay one brood of 1-9 eggs each year. The fledglings learn to fly when they are about a month old but may stay with their parents for a year before flying away to find a mate. Magpies are non-migratory and normally stay within a 10 km radius of where they were born.
juvenile magpie

See Also 

Check out EcoFriendly Sask's Nature Companion, a free nature app for Canada's 4 western provinces

Tuesday 14 September 2021

EcoSask News, September 14, 2021

wood frog

Upcoming Events 
The Saskatoon Nature Society is hosting an online presentation on amphibians at 7:30 pm, Sept. 16. 

Library of Things, Saskatoon, will be open for pick-ups by reservation from the back door in the alley from 1-4 pm, Sept. 18. 

Nature Regina is hosting a presentation on the Treaty Land Sharing Network at 7:30 pm, Sept. 20, at the Royal Saskatchewan Museum. 

The Saskatoon Nature Society is inviting the public to attend a Sandhill Crane viewing from 6-8 pm, Sept. 20. 

The Saskatchewan Environmental Society and the Saskatoon Public Library are offering an online presentation on Electricity in Saskatchewan: Current Status, Future Prospects from 7-8:30 pm, Sept. 21. 

The Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy is hosting a video conference on nuclear development, communicating risk, and public engagement at noon, Sept. 23. 

There will be a global climate strike at noon, Sept. 24, in Saskatoon. 
Full event details can be found on the EcoFriendly Sask Calendar

Local News 
William Hale has opened a used electric vehicle dealership in Saskatoon. William says he’s driven an electric vehicle (EV), winter and summer, for 3 years and loves it. “The electrification of transportation is one of the principal pathways to a low carbon economy and I want to help with this transition in Saskatchewan,” he explains. The dealership offers a lower-priced entry into the EV market and an opportunity to ask questions and test drive the vehicles. They also sell and install EV chargers for home use. 

Green Shift Automotive in Regina sells a range of electric vehicles from bikes, scooters, and skateboards to hybrid and electric cars. 

Alberta Lake Management Society is offering a fall webinar series with applicability across Canada. 

Exposure to traffic noise is associated with a range of health problems, including dementia, heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. [The Guardian

The six problems aviation must fix to hit net zero: 1. fuel; 2. non-CO2 impacts, such as nitrogen oxides and contrail clouds; 3. frequent flyers; 4. policy development; 5. the new middle class; and 6. supersonic planes. [The Guardian]

Mormon cricket

Wildlife rescuers are the first to provide medical care for injured or sick animals and could provide an early-warning system for illnesses that also affect humans. [The Revelator

“Mountain and boreal caribou are on a long-term slide to extinction; not because of what wolves and other predators are doing but because of what humans have already done.” [Raincoast Conservation Foundation

“Rebugging is looking at the ways, small and large, to nurture complex communities of these tiny, vital players in almost all the natural and not-so-natural places on earth. It means conserving them where they are managing to hang on, and restoring them where they are needed as part of a rewilding movement. And it means putting bugs back into our everyday lives, our homes and where we play and work.” [The Revelator, an excerpt from Rebugging the Planet: The Remarkable Things that Insects (and Other Invertebrates) Do – And Why We Need to Love Them More by Vicki Hird) 

When they’re not looking for a mate, some female hummingbirds are adopting the same brightly coloured ornamentation as males as it “helps them avoid aggressive male behaviors during feeding, such as pecking and body slamming.” [Science Daily

“Air conditioning is the most obvious immediate response to the dangerous warming of the planet. It’s also making it worse. … People are going to keep buying air conditioners … so we need to offer them better, safer, cleaner devices … We’re doing a disservice to our citizenry when we let them buy something that is so expensive to operate, and so polluting that cooling is actually adding to the warming of the planet.” [The Guardian

Coal-fired plants made up 40% of global energy output in 2010. Here’s a breakdown of consumption on a country- by-country basis as well as a look at steps that could be taken to end coal use. [Climate Solutions

Despite what oil and gas companies would have you believe, blue hydrogen isn’t clean or economically viable. [DeSmog

Did you know?
Wood Frog hibernate under logs or leaf litter and can tolerate below-zero temperatures by increasing the amount of glucose in their blood, which lowers the freezing point and stops ice crystals from forming. [Nature Companion

EcoFriendly Sask supports Saskatchewan environmental initiatives through an online publication, an events calendar, small grants, and the Nature Companion website/app. You can follow EcoFriendly Sask by liking us on Facebook, following us on Twitter, or subscribing by email (top right corner).

Thursday 9 September 2021

Community Highlight: Saskatoon Energy Management Task Force

1. How and when did you form your group? 
In the early 1980s, Energy Management Task Forces were formed across Canada with the support of the federal government. To our knowledge, the Energy Management Task Force in Saskatoon is the only one remaining. 

2. What are your principal activities and why do you believe they're important? 
We hold monthly breakfast meetings, from September to June, with speakers presenting on a variety of topics related to energy conservation and management. The breakfast meetings provide formal knowledge exchange as well as networking. 

We host the annual Rob Dumont Energy Management Awards to recognize and honour outstanding achievements of individuals and organizations in field of energy management. The awards are named in honour of the well-known and respected engineer. 

We manage the emtfsask.ca website, a resource for information on energy management and technologies. 

3. What have been your successes to date? 
Consistent attendance at breakfast meetings of 20-40 highly engaged energy professionals. 

Excellent discussions at breakfast meetings. 

Establishment and five years of Rob Dumont Energy Management Awards recognizing excellence in energy management. 

4. What would you like to achieve in 2021? 
We would like to expand attendance at the online meetings to people across Saskatchewan. 

We would like increased attendance by post-secondary students. 

5. If you could have 3 wishes for improving your community, what would they be? 
1. Energy efficiency is a priority at all levels of government 

2. There are high levels of energy efficiency in all new buildings. 

3. Good ideas for how to retrofit all existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by about 90%. 

6. Are there volunteer opportunities with your organization? If so, please describe them and indicate how people can contact you.
Attendees are always welcome at our breakfast meetings

The executive committee would welcome additional members. In particular, a person to monitor our social media accounts would be helpful. 

The Rob Dumont Energy Management Awards Committee would welcome additional members. In particular, people with marketing abilities and/or ability to obtain sponsors would be welcome. 

Additional Community Highlights 

Photo: pre-Covid breakfast meeting, provided by EMTF

EcoFriendly Sask supports Saskatchewan environmental initiatives through an online publication, an events calendar, small grants, and the Nature Companion website/app. You can follow EcoFriendly Sask by liking us on Facebook, following us on Twitter, or subscribing by email (top right corner).

Tuesday 7 September 2021

EcoSask News, September 7, 2021


Upcoming Events 
Saskatoon Nature Society is hosting a fall bird count on Sept. 11. Register by Sept. 10 if you’re interested in participating. 

Nature Regina is hosting a native plant sale from 9 am-1 pm, Sept. 11. 

The City of Prince Albert is hosting a household hazardous waste day from 9 am-4 pm, Sept. 11. 

City of Saskatoon residents can dispose of household hazardous waste from 9 am to 3:30 pm, Sept. 12. 

There will be an online federal election forum on climate, energy, and environment with Saskatoon candidates at 7 pm, Sept. 13. 

Nature Saskatchewan is hosting an online presentation on the migration and winter habitats of burrowing owls and monarch butterflies at 7 pm, Sept. 14. Register to participate. 

Looking Ahead 
Climate Reality Leadership Corps is offering online training from Oct. 18-24. 

Full event details are available on the EcoFriendly Sask Calendar
gopher (Richardsons ground squirrel)

How We Build 
The City of Saskatoon is now offering a home energy loan program (HELP) to help residents make their homes more energy efficient. “HELP loans are repaid through property taxes over five-, 10-, or 20-year terms, and remain attached to the property. If someone moves before the loan is repaid, the new homeowner will take on loan repayment.” [CBC Saskatoon

Energy-efficient buildings in combination with improved indoor air quality could prevent 2,900 to 5,100 premature deaths annually. [Anthropocene

PFAS are used to make products water-, stain-, or heat-resistant and can be found in thousands of everyday consumer products, such as stain guards, carpeting, floor wax, and non-stick cookware. They are linked to various serious health problems and significantly contaminate indoor air. [The Guardian

An ice box demonstration highlights the effectiveness of passive house design for providing more comfortable homes with lower costs. [Inhabitat]

Wild Lives 
“So many people think about species in terms of how close to endangerment or extinction they are, but actually, what we want to do is recover species.” The goal should be measuring what we want to achieve as well as what we want to avoid. [Yale Environment 360

Wanted – conservation champions for rodents, evolutionary marvels that have adapted to almost every region on earth, serving as food for larger animals while their eating habits disperse seeds, pollinate plants, and recycle soil nutrients. [The Revelator

Making a Difference 
Don Kowalski of Griffin, SK, has donated 800 acres to the Saskatchewan Wildlife Federation’s Habitat Trust Program. The land will be managed as a wildlife sanctuary and vehicles aren’t allowed. [Discover Weyburn

Climate cafés come in all shapes and sizes, providing an opportunity to support people as they acknowledge climate change exists and manage their feelings about it. [The Guardian

EcoFriendly Sask supports Saskatchewan environmental initiatives through an online publication, an events calendar, small grants, and the Nature Companion website/app. You can follow EcoFriendly Sask by liking us on Facebook, following us on Twitter, or subscribing by email (top right corner).